Topic 2: Knowledge and language
This topic will focus on the relationship and connections between language and knowledge. There is no doubt that language plays an important role in the acquisition, production, recording and sharing of knowledge. During this topic, we will reflect on the ways in which language influences thought and behaviour and how language affects the way in which knowledge is shared and recorded.
As an individual, consider the following quotes on language taken from the Good Reads website (2020). Choose two of them to explore in relation to the acquisition, production or communication of knowledge. Write your ideas in the table below using the 4 C’s Thinking Routine (Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2016) to structure your thoughts. A response to quote number 1 has been done as a guide. Be prepared to share some of your ideas with the class.
What connections do you draw between the text and your own life or your other learning
What ideas, positions, or assumptions do you want to challenge or argue with in the text
What key concepts or ideas do you think are important and worth holding on to from the text?
This suggests that what I can know and perceive is limited by what I can express with the language that I know. It implies that the greater breadth of vocabulary that I know, the more I am able to express about the world. This could be seen when I’m trying to read a text and come across unfamiliar words that limit my ability to comprehend the text.
I would argue that there are aspects of the world that we are able to perceive and understand even if we are unable to express them in words, such as emotional responses and feelings.
The quote suggests that language influences the way in which we perceive the world Changes
Can all knowledge be communicated through language?
The activity below is intended to stimulate thought and discussion in relation to this knowledge question. Initially you should record your own point of view in response to this question in the box below. Try to give justification for your opinion./
Read the hypothetical scenario below from the work of Frank Jackson quoted on the Stanford University website/(Nida-Rümelin, M., and O Conaill, D., 2019) /and answer the questions that follow in pairs.
Try to work with someone that you have not yet worked with. You may be selected to explain your pair’s thoughts to the class./
“Mary is a brilliant scientist who is, for whatever reason, forced to investigate the world from a black and white room via a black and white television monitor. She specializes in the neurophysiology of vision and acquires, let us suppose, all the physical information there is to obtain about what goes on when we see ripe tomatoes, or the sky, and use terms like ‘red’, ‘blue’, and so on. She discovers, for example, just which wavelength combinations from the sky stimulate the retina, and exactly how this produces /via/the central nervous system the contraction of the vocal chords and expulsion of air from the lungs that results in the uttering of the sentence ‘The sky is blue’....”
What does Mary know about colour?
What is Mary unable to know about colour through language alone?
What does Mary’s story illustrate about the knowledge question from the start of this task
Read the article below from BBC Future/(Rawlings, A., 2018) https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20181211-why-emoji-mean-different-things-in-different-cultures
Oct 11, 2021
Read the following article (Boroditsky, 2009) before next lesson and summarise what you think are the key points in your TOK journal./ https://www.edge.org/conversation/how-does-our-language-shape-the-way-we-think
ExampleExplain how it illustrates your point of view
I would only partially agree with the statement of Language changing the way we think and operate. in my opinion, it is rather a cultural thing to use Cardinal points to determine your position. If the English population would decide to use a different system instead of left right, up and down, we would have the same skills to determine our surroundings. However, the way pronouns and genders of words shape our language is quite interesting. That may support racial thinking and separation. If we all were to be completely neutral about genders, peoples origin or their wealth, those would also not change peoples behavior. So is it really the Language, or rather the way our minds are structured, determining how we think?
Do the names that we give to objects have the power to shape our perception of them? A study at the University of Ghent (Ghent University, 2005) organised a taste experiment with Gouda cheese. The participants tasted the same cheese several times, but each time the cheese had a different label, for example ‘light’ or ‘low salt’. The researchers found that people’s perception of the cheese’s taste changed depending on the label. Cheese labelled light was perceived as being less tasty. Cheese labelled ‘low salt’ was perceived as tasting less salty. Another study (Masud, et al., 2017) compared speakers of English and Japanese in their perceptions of pairs of objects. The participants were shown pictures of pairs of objects. For some of the pairs, the names for the objects belonged to the same linguistic category in English but separate linguistic categories in Japanese and for the pairs, the opposite was the case. For example, a bag and a plastic bag (in Japanese: kaban and fukuro) or a chair and a stool (in Japanese: isu and isu). Participants were asked to name the objects and then rate how similar or dissimilar they were. The study found that participants were more likely to give the pairs a higher similarity rating if they were from the same linguistic category in their language. Student Task 1 ~ 10 minutes /In pairs, consider the following questions. You may be asked to share your thoughts with the class. Use the box below for your notes./
What problems might the fact that our perception of objects is influenced by the name that we give them cause in the acquisition of knowledge? Think about both the acquisition of personal knowledge and the development of academic research.
Can you think of a personal example of when your perception of something has been influenced by the name that it was given?
Why do you think that British Airways calls its different flight classes first class, business class, premium economy and economy rather than first, second, third and fourth class? [image:31727457-E567-4F27-9EA1-72FAF69EABF5-16677-00004871C491F9AA/page1image9194304.png] [image:5EE016F8-14B4-4780-9A2B-0E6AEE613FBB-16677-00004871C4667B2C/page1image9193920.png] [image:4F369F97-E11C-4AE2-BE4B-1F9B2249A830-16677-00004871C43F4CC0/page4image8925376.png] [image:573EB31A-E9A7-4F19-A284-31DC372134EC-16677-00004871C4177EA8/page4image8925376.png] [image:8C91A896-B1CD-4273-A6E7-8BED9E9B44E6-16677-00004871C3ED2DA0/page3image9393984.png]
How well do you think the example of the study of the Japanese and English speakers supports the point of view that ‘our perception of objects is heavily influenced by the names that we give them’? [image:91C4E094-0559-477C-AD07-347039367EC8-16677-00004871C3C6284A/page3image9393984.png] [image:0E7DC7B8-2664-4821-8BAC-597CF35E8278-16677-00004871C396B352/page4image8926144.png] [image:34593CA3-A4B3-421C-856C-ED32BE83191F-16677-00004871C368B39D/page4image8926144.png] [image:EC247230-9A00-418B-BF51-EA0DFBC785E8-16677-00004871C33D0B4A/page3image9393984.png] [image:F8AF84D6-DB80-4644-8B53-E5EF094A4BFF-16677-00004871C30E79D5/page3image9393984.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Do people from different linguistic background live, in some sense, in different worlds? Student Task 2 ~ 5 minutes One section from the article (Boroditsky, 2009) that you read for homework is reproduced below. /Re-read this section./ Follow me to Pormpuraaw, a small Aboriginal community on the western edge of Cape York, in northern Australia. I came here because of the way the locals, the Kuuk Thaayorre, talk about space. Instead of words like "right," "left," "forward," and "back," which, as commonly used in English, define space relative to an observer, the Kuuk Thaayorre, like many other Aboriginal groups, use cardinal-direction terms — north, south, east, and west — to define space.1 This is done at all scales, which means you have to say things like "There's an ant on your southeast leg" or "Move the cup to the north northwest a little bit." One obvious consequence of speaking such a language is that you have to stay oriented at all times, or else you cannot speak properly. The normal greeting in Kuuk Thaayorre is "Where are you going?" and the answer should be something like " Southsoutheast, in the middle distance." If you don't know which way you're facing, you can't even get past "Hello." The result is a profound difference in navigational ability and spatial knowledge between speakers of languages that rely primarily on absolute reference frames (like Kuuk Thaayorre) and languages that rely on relative reference frames (like English).2 Simply put, speakers of languages like Kuuk Thaayorre are much better than English speakers at staying oriented and keeping track of where they are, even in unfamiliar landscapes or inside unfamiliar buildings. What enables them — in fact, forces them — to do this is their language. Having their attention trained in this way equips them to perform navigational feats once thought beyond human capabilities. Because space is such a fundamental domain of thought, differences in how people think about space don't end there. People rely on their spatial knowledge to build other, more complex, more abstract representations. Representations of such things as time, number, musical pitch, kinship relations, morality, and emotions have been shown to depend on how we think about space. So if the Kuuk Thaayorre think differently about space, do they also think differently about other things, like time? This is what my collaborator Alice Gaby and I came to Pormpuraaw to find out. To test this idea, we gave people sets of pictures that showed some kind of temporal progression (e.g., pictures of a man aging, or a crocodile growing, or a banana being eaten). Their job was to arrange the shuffled photos on the ground to show the correct temporal order. We tested each person in two separate sittings, each time facing in a different cardinal direction. If you ask English speakers to do this, they'll arrange the cards so that time proceeds from left to right. Hebrew speakers will tend to lay out the cards from right to left, showing that writing direction in a language plays a role.3 So what about folks like the Kuuk Thaayorre, who don't use words like "left" and "right"? What will they do? The Kuuk Thaayorre did not arrange the cards more often from left to right than from right to left, nor more toward or away from the body. But their arrangements were not random: there was a pattern, just a different one from that of English speakers. Instead of arranging time from left to right, they arranged it from east to west. That is, when they were seated facing south, the cards went left to right. When they faced north, the cards went from right to left. When they faced east, the cards came toward the body and so on. This was true even though we never told any of our subjects which direction they faced. The Kuuk Thaayorre not only knew that already (usually much better than I did), but they also spontaneously used this spatial orientation to construct their representations of time. [image:3FCCBCBB-21AC-4D89-A8BD-C4B5348D564F-16677-00004871C2D5B9EB/page1image9193920.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Student Task 3 ~ 15 minutes /In pairs, select 3 quotes from the text above that you think best illustrate the different points of view in relation to the knowledge question above the article. For each quote, explain how it illustrates the point of view and evaluate how effectively it does this. Write your ideas in the table below. You may be asked to share your ideas and to critique the ideas of others./ [image:0604BD87-1A16-4A1F-90C3-EAB2B2EA574D-16677-00004871C28CD86D/page1image9193920.png] People from different linguistic background experience the world differently.QuoteExplain how it supports the point of viewEvaluate how effective it is at supporting the point of view
Some of our experience of the world is the same regardless of the language that we speakQuoteExplain how it supports the point of viewEvaluate how effective it is at supporting the point of view
The way in which we describe abstract concepts changes our perception of themQuoteExplain how it supports the point of viewEvaluate how effective it is at supporting the point of view
Student Task 4 ~ 5 minutes /Use your ideas from Student Task 3 and the class discussion to write a brief conclusion in response to the knowledge question. Your conclusion should state your point of view in response to the question and give justification for your point of view that develops from your ideas in Student Task 3. Write your response in the box below./ [image:EF30385D-CE90-4544-B80B-0AABA8F32CED-16677-00004871C25CF7F3/page1image9193920.png] [image:4DD0F11E-FF54-4210-AAD7-623A0D5CEB33-16677-00004871C2368335/page6image8653632.png] [image:49FD3C61-F37D-4A27-81EC-99BA91787E05-16677-00004871C20F14E1/page6image8653632.png] [image:B63B0714-2408-4F86-AB68-BC547ECDBEA9-16677-00004871C1E83047/page3image9393984.png] [image:A2157B4C-32CB-449C-943D-85389B8D6A7C-16677-00004871C1BFF5E2/page3image9393984.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
Are there differences in how knowledge is conceived of, or presented, in different languages? Student Task 1 ~ 15 minutes /Watch the following video from the BBC Future website/(Silverfish Films, 2019). /Then in pairs, discuss and produce a summary of the video using the ‘Take Note’ Thinking Routine (Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2016). You should do this on a separate piece of paper without writing your names on it as these will be swapped anonymously for Student Task 2./ https://www.bbc.co.uk/ideas/videos/do-we-think-differently-in-different-languages/p07ry35k Take Note Thinking Routine What is the most important point? What are you finding challenging, puzzling or difficult to understand? What question would you most like to discuss? What is something you found interesting? Student Task 2 ~ 15 minutes /Hand in your pair’s response to the teacher, who will then redistribute these anonymously. Read through the other pair’s response. Identify where they agreed with you and where they identified different aspects of the video./ /Now watch the video again and try to identify why the other pair might have come to different conclusions to you. If the other pair was in complete agreement with you, then reflect on why you might have drawn the same conclusions from the video. Record your thoughts and observations in the box below./ [image:28D4194A-DD76-421B-8074-EC9BC9889E2E-16677-00004871C1976AA4/page7image8552448.png] [image:1E2A9DA1-0C55-425A-94DC-E108E8062B51-16677-00004871C16C7C9D/page7image8552640.png] [image:BE99BEB6-93F4-4F35-8AE3-F7AF04F81673-16677-00004871C1431B67/page1image9194304.png] [image:C25076A4-FC2A-4AB2-B892-293971F53DA7-16677-00004871C11AA4D7/page1image9193920.png] [image:D94A93F9-7F41-4046-A84B-3410AF0C33FC-16677-00004871C0F31E2D/page7image8553216.png] [image:8C88804B-F607-4139-81F6-604F45DA7A7A-16677-00004871C0CABF1B/page1image9193920.png] [image:4835E481-6808-412B-9296-699F8245D862-16677-00004871C0A1B379/page7image8553600.png] [image:90BCEBF9-412D-47F4-A2E7-11294DE4C207-16677-00004871C0793C96/page7image8553600.png] [image:19215B8D-2CB6-486C-ACF5-40BE954A88C6-16677-00004871C04DE365/page7image8552448.png] [image:046F62A1-006C-4761-89C9-920FABEC38F7-16677-00004871C024FD67/page7image8552640.png] Student Task 3 ~ 10 minutes /As an individual, reflect on the previous two tasks using the prompt questions below to help you. Record your thoughts in the box below./ When watching the video for the second time, were there aspects of it that you hadn’t remembered from your first viewing? Do you think that your original summary of the video was influenced more by what you remembered than by what was actually the most important points? [image:27DD7985-EB91-4111-9FF7-D56901A54FBE-16677-00004871BFFADEEE/page1image9193920.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Did your opinions on your responses change after viewing the video for a second time? Did your opinions on your responses change after reading the other pair’s responses? How easy did you find it to empathise with the other pair’s point of view? [image:09EEA625-BE9E-4795-9B9B-383533907F9B-16677-00004871BFD19BC4/page8image8765824.png] [image:E2953D2D-6EF1-4FDB-AB13-E6C3D93B9BC3-16677-00004871BFA7E89F/page8image8765824.png] [image:C27A0B05-E829-428C-AD74-F6BECFCC2D70-16677-00004871BF7A706A/page3image9393984.png] [image:CEA16E38-A341-403C-BB93-787B76101910-16677-00004871BF532394/page3image9393984.png] Follow-up Task/Homework Task /Read the extract from George Orwell’s dystopian novel Nineteen eighty four. (Orwell, 1948)/ "How is the dictionary getting on?" said Winston, raising his voice to overcome the noise. "Slowly," said Syme. "I'm on the adjectives. It's fascinating. The Eleventh Edition is the definitive edition," he said, "We're getting the language into its final shape - the shape it's going to have when nobody speaks anything else. When we've finished with it, people like you will have to learn it all over again. You think, I dare say, that our chief job is inventing new words. But not a bit of it! We're destroying words - scores of them, hundreds of them, every day. We're cutting the language down to the bone. The Eleventh Edition won't contain a single word that will become obsolete before the year 2050." "It's a beautiful thing, the destruction of words. Of course the great wastage is in the verbs and adjectives, but there are hundreds of nouns that can be got rid of as well. It isn't only the synonyms; there are also the antonyms. After all, what justification is there for a word which is simply the opposite of some other words? A word contains its opposite in itself. Take 'good,' for instance. If you have a word like 'good,' what need is there for a word like 'bad'? "Ungood" will do just as well - better, because it's an exact opposite, which the other is not. Or again, if you want a stronger version of 'good,' what sense is there in having a whole string of vague useless words like 'excellent' and 'splendid' and all the rest of them? 'Plusgood' covers the meaning, or 'doubleplusgood' if you want something stronger still. Of course we use these forms already, but in the final version of Newspeak there'll be nothing else. In the end the whole notion of goodness and badness will be covered by only six words-- in reality, only one word." "Don't you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it. Every concept that can ever be needed will be expressed by exactly one word, with its meaning rigidly defined and all its subsidiary meanings rubbed out and forgotten. Already, in the Eleventh Edition, we're not far from that point. But the process will still be continuing long after you and I are dead. Every year fewer and fewer words, and the range of consciousness always a little smaller. Even now, of course, there's no reason or excuse for committing thoughtcrime. It's merely a question of self-discipline, reality-control. But in the end there won't be any need even for that. The Revolution will be complete when the language is perfect." /In this extract, Orwell is suggesting that by changing the language that we speak and the words that we use we can change the thoughts that people are able to think. To what extent do you agree/ [image:CF394642-5CA7-42CE-8F1D-36C49FF527E4-16677-00004871BF29B15D/page8image8766592.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language /with Orwell? Use the ‘Think, Puzzle, Explore’ Visible Thinking Routine (Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2016) to help you unpack your ideas about this. Record your ideas in the box below./ ‘Think, Puzzle, Explore’ Visible Thinking Routine
What do you thinkyou know about this topic?
What questions or puzzlesdo you have?
What does the topic make you want to explore? [image:498E2F48-BFCF-4FDE-9C0D-35A5F1A1F1B2-16677-00004871BF021EAB/page9image9372800.png] [image:B92F684E-088A-4B4D-9F92-AF78D5B11660-16677-00004871BEDAA12F/page9image9372800.png] [image:7C460BAA-8F52-420B-8350-8D4D624B23A3-16677-00004871BEADDBAC/page3image9393984.png] [image:E7351044-E32A-4D36-85B6-B5DCB70BBA97-16677-00004871BE83758F/page3image9393984.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
Student Task 1 ~20 minutes /In groups of three, read through the information below and discuss and answer the questions in the boxes provided./
The words that we use not only have a descriptive meaning, but also an emotive meaning. Words such as ‘hero’ or ‘peace’ have positive connotations, whereas words such as ’thief’ or ‘liar’ have negative connotations. We often choose the words that we use based on their emotive meaning or to speak euphemistically. For example, the timber industry now longer uses the term ‘clear cutting’ when it cuts down old forests, but ‘landscape management’ instead. (Lagemaat, 2015. p.104) /In 1947, the United States Department of War was renamed the Department of Defense/(UShistory.org, n.d.)/. Why do think that this change might have been made?/ [image:3314DEEB-9B4C-47C0-BBED-632AD637B394-16677-00004871BE56125F/page1image9194304.png] [image:9BBE5093-54A6-46CD-89AF-0E0147C50EF5-16677-00004871BE28D5C3/page1image9193920.png] [image:679F369B-9515-4090-B81D-E7330AA80B3B-16677-00004871BE004CBD/page10image8749824.png] [image:921151C4-C1D1-4FF2-9332-AD2DCB9FF1C9-16677-00004871BDD7B6E5/page10image8749824.png] [image:DE614688-4FE7-4C99-A405-C578AD8AEAF3-16677-00004871BDAF693A/page3image9393984.png] [image:9EE15CAC-BE63-4B7D-87EF-7F87C6146D74-16677-00004871BD805B61/page3image9393984.png] Al Gore is quoted as saying “Blocking your child’s access to objectionable material on the internet is not called censorship, it is called parenting” (Lagemaat, 2015. p.104) /1. What emotional connotations do the words censorship and parenting have? 2. What do you think he was trying to express with this statement?/ [image:74620A7B-5E51-4D10-BCC1-2B0E351F74A3-16677-00004871BD515469/page10image8752512.png] [image:79532FD7-40AF-4F28-9D22-894463C85E9F-16677-00004871BD1CCC83/page10image8752512.png] [image:4EA0B112-7320-4235-B078-45309228AB86-16677-00004871BCF4B14B/page3image9393984.png] [image:B6012148-5A54-4896-8EAC-FAD9584D2113-16677-00004871BCCE3C41/page3image9393984.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
There are some words that can be used to give the author an escape route, such ‘many’, ‘should’ and ‘probably’. /Identify the weasel word used in the following sentences and suggest how the author is trying to use the word as an escape route./ /1. Our shampoo leaves you up to 100% dandruff free 2. Try our award-winning meals/ /3. Our toothpaste helps to fight tooth decay/ /4. This will work if you follow the instructions carefully/ [image:C8B72E45-FE6F-4015-A164-7559E3808F36-16677-00004871BCA19974/page7image8552448.png] [image:300106FB-1A3D-4ACD-BBF8-F57271904A11-16677-00004871BC77B85C/page7image8552640.png] [image:A16E8D64-A5B7-47EF-AD0C-51A7D2489510-16677-00004871BC397828/page11image8620096.png] [image:CAECA7B6-3CF4-4B5C-8F6C-A2FF19EAE8C1-16677-00004871BC02F830/page11image8620096.png] [image:E8E04721-58AE-4C3C-9B0E-92AA0DED5CB1-16677-00004871BBCE7E2F/page7image8552448.png] [image:F8530A4D-C918-4A1F-BB22-223DC80A0DDA-16677-00004871BBA612BE/page7image8552640.png]
/Compare the two sentences, the first written in the passive voice and the second in the active voice./ /1. My homework got lost/ /2. I lost my homework/ /First, think about what the first statement is trying to imply in comparison to the second. Then consider more generally how the passive voice can be used to mislead. Record your thoughts below./ [image:D772A221-ACD7-4630-9AEC-94E11E73547C-16677-00004871BB7F0431/page11image8620864.png] [image:8FD4DC61-065A-4828-888F-D41BA7D560E1-16677-00004871BB57FAA7/page11image8620864.png] [image:390B7EF8-80B9-4BA9-893C-AF2A1CC62986-16677-00004871BB2B41C5/page7image8552448.png] [image:7B436DAA-D6A5-4D20-9685-5A675BB50F61-16677-00004871BB00183E/page7image8552640.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
/Consider the difference between talking about ‘policemen’ and ‘police officers’. What is the implication being made by each term?/ /Now consider the following two terms ‘air hostess’ and ‘flight attendant’. Again, what are the implications of each term?/ How can we identify language that is intended to manipulate or deceive us? /In the space below, produce a list of instructions that would help somebody to identify misleading or manipulative language. Be prepared to justify your list to someone else./ [image:28FFC27A-5E95-41A7-AD2D-30990B4C9F0B-16677-00004871BAD1F7F2/page12image8484928.png] [image:D9717CE5-0F6A-4507-9A0E-5B2A01590107-16677-00004871BAA729BF/page12image8484928.png] [image:89B87061-2595-4964-99A2-CF0782CFB454-16677-00004871BA7F198A/page3image9393984.png] [image:70C580B8-2D80-4B6D-85D9-593F14E2F3BD-16677-00004871BA586D9D/page3image9393984.png] [image:139B0613-ED4A-42DA-9106-FF465385BE7D-16677-00004871BA2D2864/page12image8485696.png] [image:A8DD0705-3E78-4B69-BBD5-CF1912F11F26-16677-00004871BA02AF07/page12image8485696.png] [image:5F90C9D3-8BD0-4F3C-99A4-8757B9D42D16-16677-00004871B9CBF1EB/page3image9393984.png] [image:EA02245B-8A69-4ADA-8BBE-8CE7334B4739-16677-00004871B9A07544/page3image9393984.png] [image:AA8BED32-FB4F-4E06-BD6E-94B861893E13-16677-00004871B972DF54/page12image8486464.png] [image:930E6C04-F1F5-453D-AC27-38008B0C46A2-16677-00004871B942BBD3/page12image8486464.png] [image:D784E42D-664A-4CAB-9E03-0D09D5D0CDDD-16677-00004871B91DE777/page3image9393984.png] [image:8DC5F469-1EE3-4CCE-8E32-B1F318A0AAC9-16677-00004871B8F8BB7B/page3image9393984.png] [image:8AE20723-3B93-42C5-912F-817A3CBA0D1C-16677-00004871B8D3BC28/page12image8290496.png] [image:8472881F-7294-46DF-B0BF-627F5E5CD482-16677-00004871B8ACB3EA/page12image8290496.png] [image:5E941C86-447A-4DA1-8F43-E50240B20848-16677-00004871B886D037/page3image9393984.png] [image:60DBB1D2-1648-400E-8FE4-B1EDD4205206-16677-00004871B85EFA7A/page3image9393984.png] Student Task 2 ~ 10-15 minutes /In pairs, try to think of as many specific examples from your other DP subjects that show how language can be used to mislead and influence./ [image:BA8A540D-2104-471F-84A3-8CD9C15DF0E3-16677-00004871B835D9A7/page1image9193920.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language /Is this always a bad thing? Record your thoughts below./ [image:95513395-E6B7-4BE6-AE2F-056457BBFD51-16677-00004871B80F11A8/page13image8509632.png] [image:CF7BF042-C553-42AA-9ABC-D43058CA4072-16677-00004871B7E59A3C/page13image8509632.png] [image:EFA05C84-D593-4A77-8904-CE381EE1CE6C-16677-00004871B7BA1204/page3image9393984.png] [image:1DBB06A1-FF94-4DA4-BDB7-112300468CF6-16677-00004871B78579E7/page3image9393984.png] Homework ~10-15 minutes /Review the feedback from your teacher on your first practice essay. Reflect on this and what you intend to do differently next time in your TOK Journal./ [image:E9F39F9D-48BA-4581-8D49-C883EC36CB33-16677-00004871B7524A57/page3image9397824.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
Do we need ethics specific language to discuss ethical ideas? Student Task 1 ~ 5 minutes /Consider the following ethical dilemma (Yourdictionary.com, n.d.). Record you thoughts in the box below./ Michael had several friends including Roger and Daniel. Roger has recently met and started dating a wonderful lady named Phyllis. He is convinced this is a long term relationship. Unknown to Roger, Michael observed them at a restaurant several days ago and realized Phyllis is the wife of his other friend Daniel. Michael is deciding whether to tell Roger that Phyllis is married when he receives a call from Daniel. Daniel suspects his wife is having an affair and since they and Michael share many friends and contacts, he asks if Michael has heard anything regarding an affair. What should Michael do? Student Task 2 ~ 5 minutes /Pair up with another students and compare your answers. Try to come to an agreed point of view that you would be able to justify to another pair. Record your ideas in the box below./ Student Task 3 ~ 10 minutes /Consider the following question and be prepared to share your thoughts with the class and to respond to the ideas of others./ Would the previous task have been easier if you’d had a shared ethical language that you could use to organise and categorise your thoughts and arguments? [image:315E7CA9-E23C-4102-A564-ABDACEA9B91B-16677-00004871B7290791/page1image9194304.png] [image:6D950327-7E51-429D-9DA8-0CAF818B97AA-16677-00004871B6FFF7AB/page1image9193920.png] [image:B8840EBC-608B-4C57-BDC7-F2D7EDCB458C-16677-00004871B6D94831/page12image8486464.png] [image:4B2818FA-FB28-434C-BB19-E0F9120DAF93-16677-00004871B6B1B210/page12image8486464.png] [image:BBC167F7-5B7A-44BD-8590-C4116DC51FC9-16677-00004871B68B5F8B/page14image8279488.png] [image:CE907DCF-0B8A-48E3-B2DB-867E04A76B0C-16677-00004871B66222C1/page14image8279488.png] [image:DCD899F8-A02F-4CEF-964F-9ACECFC92BEF-16677-00004871B63DF62A/page1image9193920.png] [image:38C335AE-9167-4002-A79B-27B9CAD90FDC-16677-00004871B6178419/page14image8280064.png] [image:9275D9FD-459F-42EE-9CF3-FC72337996F1-16677-00004871B5EEFC7F/page14image8280064.png] [image:820192A6-C9AF-4149-90C7-E4350CB9E14D-16677-00004871B5C46042/page14image8279488.png] [image:7FC1005E-7901-4957-8A94-924D5DBFCF59-16677-00004871B59B6FAC/page14image8279488.png] [image:0F1529A2-37BC-4AF8-B4C6-78875801F4CB-16677-00004871B56D9B4D/page1image9193920.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Student Task 4 ~10 minutes /Look through the list of ethical language in the glossary below (Beach, 1996) and make a note of any of the terms that would have been useful in your discussions above and why they would have been useful./ https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/3527604006.gloss [image:9314CA44-1C09-4868-BB6F-9FC16EF0D30F-16677-00004871B5320C04/page1image9193920.png] [image:D4FB58B5-4956-4AB7-9115-33B0ED49F836-16677-00004871B501739B/page15image8404544.png] TermWhy it would have been useful
Student Task 5 ~ 10 minutes /Watch the short video below on Trolley Problems (BBC Radio 4, 2014)/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOpf6KcWYyw /You will be asked to discuss your own responses to the Trolley Problem with the class. You should be aiming to use some of the ethical language that you identified in the previous task./ [image:24DFDD6E-9DBA-4773-89EB-5B77861264D4-16677-00004871B4C5874C/page1image9193920.png] [image:5AC3789E-050F-434C-A60C-6C4D4FEE143D-16677-00004871B49DE521/page15image8177152.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
We need language to be able to share knowledge with others, whether that be in the present or recording information for future generations. This can occur through oral traditions, written texts, digital records etc. But what is the best way to record information and how can we be sure that future generations will be able to understand or interpret the knowledge that we have recorded? Student Task 1 ~ 5 minutes /Read through the example analysis of a TOK object below, selected in response to one of the Exhibition Task IA prompts and with relevance to the topic of the lesson./ Example of a TOK object IA Prompt 10: What challenges are raised by the dissemination and/or communication of knowledge? Description of the object The image below shows the Rosetta stone that is on display in the British Museum. (Hillewaert, 2007) The Rosetta stone was discovered in 1799 and records a decree issued in Memphis, Egypt in 196BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V Epiphanes. It is inscribed in three different scripts: Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, Ancient Egyptian Demotic, and Ancient Greek. (The British Museum, 2017) Relevance of the object to the question/prompt. The object shows how knowledge can be recorded through written language for future generations. The fact that we still have access to this knowledge 2000 years after it was created demonstrates the longevity of some forms of written communication. However, at the time of discovery, Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were unable to be translated and therefore this section of the stone could not [image:B93E2E08-1055-4ED5-AF9D-96BAB9F485C7-16677-00004871B47537D5/page1image9194304.png] [image:9B14AF18-F22C-4FA6-94EB-41E5575D8F03-16677-00004871B44D8C6D/page1image9193920.png] [image:03AB3A1A-09BC-4A9C-A268-5EB022017DA3-16677-00004871B425797F/page16image8334400.png] [image:E18B885B-87A5-4B42-9EBA-304D68E5E37C-16677-00004871B3FE8EDB/page16image7280320.jpg] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language be read. This shows that although the written communication may survive, the knowledge may not if the language used has been forgotten. This raises interesting questions about how best we record knowledge for the future and in what language. However, as Ancient Greek was understood and the reasonable assumption made that the three texts were recording the same information in three different languages, the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were able to be deciphered and consequently we now have access to a much greater range of knowledge that was recorded in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs than we were able to access before. Consequently, the Rosetta stone has been included here as a significant object in the development of knowledge that demonstrates some of the challenges of communicating knowledge with future generations. Student Task 2 ~ 10 minutes /Using the adapted marking criteria below (International Baccalaureate Organisation, 2020), discuss how well this object and its written commentary support the exploration of the IA prompt. Decide on the mark that you would award it. Then form a pair with another student and compare your marking. Discuss where and why you agree and disagree on the marking./ [image:13630CD5-98E7-4070-B15E-5773006346A9-16677-00004871B3D29F3B/page1image9193920.png] Excellent (5)Good (4)Satisfactory (3)Basic (2)Rudimentary (1) An object and its specific real-world context is clearly identified. An object and its real-world context is identified. An object is identified, although its real-world context may be vaguely or imprecisely stated. An object is identified, although its real-world context may be implied rather than explicitly stated. An object is presented but the real-world context is not stated. The link between the object and the IA prompt is clearly made and well-explained. The link between the object and the IA prompt is explained, although this explanation may lack precision and clarity in parts. There is some explanation of the link between the object and the IA Prompt. Basic links between the object and the IA prompt are made, but the explanation of these is unconvincing and/or unfocused. The links between the object and the IA prompt are minimal, tenuous or it is not clear what is being conveyed. There is a strong justification for the inclusion of the object. There is a justification for the inclusion of the object. There is some justification for the inclusion of the object. There is a superficial justification for the inclusion of the object. There is little justification offered for the inclusion of the object. All points are well-supported by appropriate evidence and explicit references to the IA prompt. Many points are supported by appropriated evidence and references to the selected IA prompt. Some of the points are supported by evidence and references to the selected IA prompt. The points are not supported by evidence and/or there is a lack of relevance to the IA prompt. The commentary is highly descriptive or consists only of unsupported assertions. Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Why is it important to think about how we best communicate knowledge to future generations? Student Task 3 /Watch the following video from Tom Scott (2019), read the brief paragraph below and complete the task./ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aoy_WJ3mE50 The video, as well as being quite an interesting solution to a problem, also highlights the difficulty with recording knowledge for future generations. We cannot predict what languages will survive, whether human society will exist with the same structures, infrastructure and methods of communication that we have now. Nevertheless, there are circumstances when ensuring that we can record knowledge for future generations seems essential. /In a group of four, think about how you might go about designing and recording warnings for the sight in the video that would effectively communicate the knowledge that there is something dangerous buried beneath the ground to future generations thousands of years into the future. Use the space below for your ideas./ [image:15F98374-033D-40C8-857E-2E9403C52FCD-16677-00004871B3AA459B/page1image9193920.png] [image:B30BEF1F-FFC6-4D75-8A85-C46427A4D350-16677-00004871B37FEF47/page18image8375872.png] [image:FECBE6BB-940B-445A-84EE-B34EF4874AE8-16677-00004871B358C9F6/page18image8376064.png] [image:E3C26818-3CB5-4913-8B58-414E2550A82C-16677-00004871B33108B1/page18image8376064.png] [image:0356F368-60EA-4A5A-9266-2309B3DA987A-16677-00004871B309B22D/page14image8279488.png] [image:F140F541-9139-42D0-ADBD-D8A3C944224C-16677-00004871B2D419DD/page14image8279488.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Homework – TOK and tell /In pairs, you will identify an object that illustrates one of the IA prompts below (IBO, 2020) and produce a brief exploration of it (like the example in Student Task 1).You will present your object and your exploration to the class next lesson and it will be assessed using the same criteria as in Student Task 2./ IA prompts IA Prompt 6: How does the way that we organize or classify knowledge affect what we know? IA Prompt 10: What challenges are raised by the dissemination and/or communication of knowledge? IA Prompt 14: Does some knowledge belong only to particular communities of knowers? /Instructions/ /Time limit – 3 minutes/ /Describe the object and its real-world context./ /Explain the link between the object and your chosen IA prompt./ /Justify the choice of the object and the reasons for its inclusion./ /Support your points with evidence./ /Provide references for any images and sources that you use. Follow the guidance at the following website (Anglia Ruskin University, n.d.):/ https://library.aru.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm [image:DFD5335F-0CF9-4E8B-AC49-3D24C86D5933-16677-00004871B2A8311D/page19image8583808.png] [image:BE7E8AF4-44E1-468F-B314-AC5603737EDE-16677-00004871B2813C61/page19image8584000.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
/In this lesson, you will present the TOK and tell tasks that you have completed for homework in pairs. These will be assessed using the criteria below. Whilst watching the presentations of others, you should use the assessment criteria to produce a mark for the presentation and compare this to the teachers assessment in the table below./ [image:DF219264-9501-45C0-8996-DAF33B9FAE58-16677-00004871B25AEA98/page1image9194304.png] Excellent (5)Good (4)Satisfactory (3)Basic (2)Rudimentary (1) An object and its specific real-world context is clearly identified. An object and its real-world context is identified. An object is identified, although its real-world context may be vaguely or imprecisely stated. An object is identified, although its real-world context may be implied rather than explicitly stated. An object is presented but the real-world context is not stated. The link between the object and the IA prompt is clearly made and well-explained. The link between the object and the IA prompt is explained, although this explanation may lack precision and clarity in parts. There is some explanation of the link between the object and the IA Prompt. Basic links between the object and the IA prompt are made, but the explanation of these is unconvincing and/or unfocused. The links between the object and the IA prompt are minimal, tenuous or it is not clear what is being conveyed. There is a strong justification for the inclusion of the object. There is a justification for the inclusion of the object. There is some justification for the inclusion of the object. There is a superficial justification for the inclusion of the object. There is little justification offered for the inclusion of the object. All points are well-supported by appropriate evidence and explicit references to the IA prompt. Many points are supported by appropriated evidence and references to the selected IA prompt. Some of the points are supported by evidence and references to the selected IA prompt. The points are not supported by evidence and/or there is a lack of relevance to the IA prompt. The commentary is highly descriptive or consists only of unsupported assertions. GroupMy markTeacher’s markWhy I think my mark was different 1
Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Homework ~ 10 minutes /Write a brief entry in your TOK Journal reflecting on what went well with your TOK and tell task and what you will aim to improve in the future based on the feedback that you received./
[image:FA5B29ED-D73C-4B4B-9A43-822336FA6419-16677-00004871B22FC2E7/page3image9397824.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
Student Task 1 ~ 15 minutes /Watch the following video from The RSA (2011) that animates a talk from Steven Pinker and then complete the task below./ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-son3EJTrU /If you were to write a headline for this topic or issue right now that captured the most important aspect that should be remembered, what would that headline be? (Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2016)/ When not to take language literally The language that we use to communicate ideas and knowledge does more than just communicate content. The way that we choose to express certain concepts or phrases adds layers of meaning that are not apparent from the literal words used. We use euphemisms(where we use words or phrases that are less offensive, overt or blunt instead of ones that are) for a range of reasons as outlined in the video. We use metaphors(applying words or phrases to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable) such as ‘that painting stinks’. It is unlikely to mean that the painting literally smells bad. Instead it is drawing comparison between the poor quality of the painting and the unpleasantness of a bad smell. We do this sort of thing so often that we are largely unaware of it. If I say that ‘my brother is a butcher’, I am likely to be telling you about his profession. However, if I tell you that ‘my dentist is butcher’, I am not telling you about their profession, but telling you about the way in which they conduct their work. We choose words based on their secondary meaning(the unspoken implication of the word). For example, telling someone that they have ‘eyes as green as emeralds’ is likely, depending on context, to be taken as a compliment, whereas telling them they have ‘eyes as green as pond weed’, whilst perhaps being a literal comparison of the colours, is less likely to be taken as a compliment. We use irony(saying one thing to mean the opposite). Two people standing in the rain understand that when one says ‘lovely weather we’re having’ they are being ironic. Both understand that it is intended to mean the opposite because of the context, because of their shared knowledge. However, without the context this sentence no longer conveys the same meaning. [image:C0125D9A-7C0B-492E-B447-4EFE9F06F6F0-16677-00004871B1FA8107/page1image9194304.png] [image:048F520B-2702-42D2-A33E-1A033DAF6244-16677-00004871B1CC8B51/page1image9193920.png] [image:B1520898-BEBD-431F-B686-FA428A7A736B-16677-00004871B1A208F3/page19image8584000.png] [image:9A53D110-DFD7-46BC-B751-41DD3979F387-16677-00004871B17ACD06/page22image7790080.png] [image:3C1FFFF3-1BD5-44A8-AC46-D327DAE061DF-16677-00004871B152B4F9/page22image7790080.png] [image:9C2110FD-FC60-486E-A255-4B8FC0E27B78-16677-00004871B12B670A/page3image9393984.png] [image:51A8B368-DE69-4BD5-BAEF-4F7AC474A1C5-16677-00004871B0FDD005/page3image9393984.png] [image:94D8FD6C-1AA4-4DDC-BB5C-518C1F1FAA94-16677-00004871B0D5B6B4/page22image7790848.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language We use idioms(phrases whose meaning is different to their interpretation), such as ‘I was over the moon’, ‘don’t beat about the bush’, they’re barking up the wrong tree’, etc. Without the shared knowledge of what these phrases mean they don’t make sense in the context. All of these pose even more of a problem when they are written down and read after the event. Imagine you are reading an historical source. How can you tell if the author was being ironic, or using a metaphor or being ironic without the context? Student Task 2 ~15-20 minutes /In groups of three, use the ‘Generate-Sort-Connect-Elaborate’ visible thinking routine (Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2016) to summarise and organise your thoughts in response to the question below./ Question: To what extent is it possible to be certain about the intended meaning of a written text? Generatea list of ideas and thoughts about this topic Sortyour ideas according to how central or tangential they are. Place central ideas near the centre and more tangential idea towards the outside of the page. Connectyour ideas by drawing connecting lines between ideas that have something in common. Explain and write in a short sentence how the ideas are connected. Elaborateon any of the ideas that you written so far by adding new ideas that expand, extend, or add to your initial ideas. [image:32762D42-F4A1-4A9D-B103-F0606931BB79-16677-00004871B0AFB40C/page1image9193920.png] [image:E20A596B-1182-4940-A620-89BB54D65B33-16677-00004871B087DC25/page23image7906880.png] [image:3119B9A1-5911-4800-975A-785542685D8B-16677-00004871B06131D8/page23image7906880.png] [image:0610ED7B-3F65-4A58-B39A-0A232CCFFD02-16677-00004871B03AF02F/page3image9393984.png] [image:DBB87AC9-825F-48C7-B118-D827D10A93FD-16677-00004871B0162067/page3image9393984.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language
The Welsh Language You can hear an example of the Welsh Language in the following link (Wikitongues, 2015). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvtbdq3WiyU In 1911 there were almost a million Welsh speakers in Wales and for some it was the only language they spoke. By 1981, this had dropped just over half a million. This had increased slightly to just under 600,000 by 2001. (Welsh Government, 2012) The Welsh Language Act 1993 established a Board with the function of promoting and facilitating the Welsh language and the Welsh Government publication Cymraeg 2050: A million Welsh speakers (2019) lays out plans of action to increase the number of Welsh speakers. Student Task 1 ~ 5 minutes /In pairs, consider the following questions. Record your thoughts in the box below./ Why do you think steps are being taken to try and increase the number of Welsh speakers? What knowledge might be lost if the Welsh language were to disappear? Why might someone who speaks Welsh as a first language, but who is also fluent in English prefer to speak Welsh? [image:2473EF43-77D3-461F-83D1-18718C146C8E-16677-00004871AFF0C04D/page24image7983040.png] [image:C941C0E0-DB9B-455D-B58C-09ED132923AE-16677-00004871AFC85A43/page24image7983040.png] [image:7C1BD7C0-3EE0-4FD9-B58C-60C26EA51544-16677-00004871AFA19B10/page3image9393984.png] [image:C3431558-2342-4555-9D11-72C18EF25E1E-16677-00004871AF7B2952/page3image9393984.png] [image:1E55D1F8-C649-4993-AA06-8C0AE250AB2C-16677-00004871AF539DF6/page1image9194304.png] [image:D9121D70-BFFC-42D5-8CBB-25F709A67C96-16677-00004871AF24D969/page24image7984000.png] [image:32E00C1E-C0CC-49B5-8DC5-80E7263EF347-16677-00004871AEFA9DFD/page1image9193920.png] [image:227FCED1-732C-442F-8789-31C11D428A0E-16677-00004871AED4CEA2/page24image7984384.png] [image:FE2C773B-31F7-4313-A43C-A390D5473148-16677-00004871AEADD445/page24image7984384.png] [image:4A04F4EE-35B4-492F-9334-64814BC5C0BB-16677-00004871AE7EA4F4/page3image9393984.png] [image:3761D259-E998-443C-AA01-E8CDCBBE0C27-16677-00004871AE52BA97/page3image9393984.png] Student Task 2 ~ 10 minutes /Imagine if we were to develop and implement one single global language that was spoken by everyone on the planet as their first and only language. Discuss this hypothetical idea with a partner/ [image:8E716CDB-8C63-4D0D-B07C-06AA13B36716-16677-00004871AE2938FC/page1image9193920.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language /and produce a list of the benefits and drawbacks. You will be asked to share your ideas with the class./ BenefitsDrawbacks
Student Task 3 ~ 5 minutes /Review your table above and the ideas shared with the class. Produce a short evaluation of the benefits and drawbacks of having a single global language and summarise your own point of view in response to this with justification./ [image:ED428724-276B-4A16-803C-493915C25E68-16677-00004871ADFCFB19/page1image9193920.png] [image:730C6647-F8DC-4772-B5C4-E87E66EEF3A8-16677-00004871ADD5A19F/page25image7603712.png] [image:9BEF31D7-2005-478B-8778-D4010E2B48F6-16677-00004871ADAF7E06/page25image7603712.png] [image:0449880E-54D2-4EC4-9F67-824B77717AAA-16677-00004871AD888530/page3image9393984.png] [image:3038E17F-AAAF-415E-B7D7-69F2D934DCB5-16677-00004871AD622B67/page3image9393984.png] Student Task 4 ~ 15 minutes /Watch the PBS NewsHour (2015) report on the loss of languages./ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lNjnE_-Log Use the ‘4 C’s’ Visible Thinking Routine (Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2016) to help organise your thoughts on the content of the video. /The 4 Cs/ Connections: What connections do you draw between the text and your own life or your other learning? [image:30B9282A-0034-4A40-B25F-8A0C2FC86D63-16677-00004871AD38E7EC/page1image9193920.png] [image:C0401472-1853-435C-8D23-8FCF8192EB8D-16677-00004871AD0DCEDE/page25image7604672.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Challenge: What ideas, positions, or assumptions do you want to challenge or argue with in the text? Concepts: What key concepts or ideas do you think are important and worth holding on to from the text? Changes: What changes in attitudes, thinking or action are suggested by the text, either for you or others? Connections
Practice Written Assessment 2 ~ 45-60 minutes Written Task Question “Are metaphors useful in the acquisition of knowledge?” /Guidance/ /Word limit – 400 words./ /Present a point of view in response to the title, such as “metaphors can aid understanding in the acquisition of knowledge.”/ /Justify this point of view using a specific example from your DP lessons or that you learnt at GCSE. Explore how this specific example supports the point of view./ /Present a contrasting point of view, such as “sometimes the use of metaphors in the acquisition of knowledge leads to misunderstanding.”/ /Justify this point of view using a specific example from your studies. Explore how this specific example supports the point of view./ /Compare the two points of view and answer the question, justifying the position that you have taken./ /Presentation and submission guidance/ /Size 12 font, double spaced. Question at the top of the page. Word count at the top of the page. Submitted on time. If the task is not submitted on Google Classroom (if this is what the teacher requests) then the file name must contain your name and Practice Written Task 1./ /When you submit your essay, use the assessment criteria below to predict what mark you think it will receive and explain why./ [image:31A2CBF6-7F6A-43F4-9161-EB9629424E4B-16677-00004871ACE1F257/page26image7847296.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Assessment criteria The task will be marked out of 6 for content and out of 4 for presentation. Good (5-6 marks) Satisfactory (3-4 marks) Basic (1-2 marks) The response is focused on the title The response is focused on the title The response has limited relevance to the title The arguments are clear and coherent The arguments are clear and coherent Arguments are offered but they may be unclear the arguments are effectively supported by specific examples The arguments are supported by examples Arguments are not supported by effective examples There is exploration of different points of view There is awareness of different points of view There is limited awareness of different points of view or only one point of view is presented Presentation criteria Good 4 marks Satisfactory 3 marks Basic 2 marks Rudimentary 1 mark The student follows all presentation guidance and submits the essay on time (with an appropriate file name if relevant). The students follows most of the guidance but may have missed one of the points. The student only follows some of the presentation guidance. The student has made little attempt to follow the guidance. Deduct 1 extra mark if the student has exceed the word limit. Bibliography Anglia Ruskin University, n.d. /Harvard System/. [online] Available at: < https://library.aru.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm> [Accessed 9 June 2020] BBC Radio 4, 2014. /The Trolley problem./[video online] Available at: < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOpf6KcWYyw> [Accessed 4 June 2020] Beach, D., 1996. /The Responsible Conduct of Research./[online] Available at: < https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/3527604006.gloss> [Accessed 4 June 2020] The British Museum, 2017. /Everything you ever wanted to know about the Rosetta Stone./[online] Available at: https://blog.britishmuseum.org/everything-you-ever-wanted-to-know-about-the-rosetta-stone/ [Accessed 9 June 2020] Boroditsky, L., 2009. /How does our language shape the way we think?/[online] Available at: https://www.edge.org/conversation/how-does-our-language-shape-the-way-we-think [Accessed 3 June 2020] [image:4D2C3781-E14A-4F99-9D85-FBFA24251D8F-16677-00004871ACB24D6C/page27image7614080.png] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language Ghent University, 2005. /Health labels influence flavour perception./[online] Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151211131546.htm [Accessed 4 May 2020] Goodreads.com, 2020. /Language Quotes./[online] Available at: https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/language [Accessed 1 May 2020] Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2016. /Project Zero’s Thinking Routine Toolbox./[online] Available at: < https://pz.harvard.edu/thinking-routines> [Accessed 2 June 2020] Hillewaert, H., 2007. /Rosetta Stone./[image online] Available at: < https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rosetta_Stone.JPG> [Accessed 4 June 2020] International Baccalaureate Organisation, 2020. /Theory of Knowledge Guide/[online] Available at: < https://resources.ibo.org/dp/subject/Theory-of-knowledge-2022/?> [Accessed 7 February 2020] Lagemaat, R., 2015. /Theory of Knowledge for the IB Diploma./Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Masud, T., Ishii, K., Miwa, K., Rashid, M., Lee, H., and Mahdi, R., 2017. /One Label or Two? Linguistic Influences on the Similarity Judgement of Objects between English and Japanese Speakers./Front. Psychol. [e-journal] 8(1637). Available through: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01637 [Accessed 4 May 2020] Nida-Rümelin, M., and O Conaill, D., 2019. /Qualia: The Knowledge Argument./[online] Available at:< https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qualia-knowledge/> [Accessed 1 May 2020] Orwell, G., 1948. /Nineteen eighty four./ PBS NewHour, 2015. /What does the world lose when a language dies?/[video online] Available at:< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lNjnE_-Log> [Accessed 4 June 2020] Rawlings, A., 2018. /Why emoji mean different things in different cultures./[online] Available at: < https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20181211-why-emoji-mean-different-things-in-different-cultures> [Accessed 2 June 2020] The RSA, 2011. /RSA ANIMATE: Language as a Window into Human Nature./[video online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-son3EJTrU [Accessed 9 June 2020] Scott, T., 2019. /Inside The Tunnels That Will Store Nuclear Waste For 100,000 Years./[video online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aoy_WJ3mE50 [Accessed 9 June 2020] Silverfish Films, 2019. /Do we think differently different languages?/[video online] Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/ideas/videos/do-we-think-differently-in-different-languages/p07ry35k [Accessed 4 June 2020] Ushistory.org, n.d. /11b. Defense Policy/. [online] Available at: < https://www.ushistory.org/gov/11b.asp> [Accessed 4 May 2020] Welsh Government, 2012. /2011 Census: First Results on the Welsh Language./[online] Available at: https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/statistics-and-research/2019-03/121211sb1182012en.pdf [Accessed 4 June 2020] Welsh Language Act 1993 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1993/38/contents [Accessed 4 June 2020] Wikitongues, 2015. /WIKITONGUES: Hywel speaking Welsh./[video online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvtbdq3WiyU [Accessed 4 June 2020] Yourdictionary.com, n.d. /Ethical Dilemma Examples./[online] Available at: < https://examples.yourdictionary.com/ethical-dilemma-examples.html> [Accessed 4 June 2020] Theory of Knowledge Topic 2: Knowledge and language